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Superoxide Dismutase family

  Contact author: Christophe Dunand

  Last update: 2016-11-23 (Christophe Dunand)


Iron and manganese superoxide dismutases (FeSOD and MnSOD) :
Pfam: PF02777, Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, C-terminal domain and PF00081, Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, alpha-hairpin domain
Interpro: IPR019832, Manganese/iron superoxide dismutase, C-terminal and IPR001189, Manganese/iron superoxide dismutase, alpha-hairpin domain.

Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SODC):
Pfam: PF00080, SODC
Interpro: IPR001424, Superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc binding domain

Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD):
Pfam: PF09055, Nickel-containing superoxide dismutase
Interpro: IPR014123, Nickel-containing superoxide dismutase.

Description Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage.

SOD catalyzed dismutation of superoxide with the following half-reactions applicable to all the different metal-coordinated forms of SOD:

M(n+1)+-SOD + O2− → Mn+-SOD + O2
Mn+-SOD + O2− + 2H+ → M(n+1)+-SOD + H2O2.

where M = Cu (n=1) ; Mn (n=2) ; Fe (n=2) ; Ni (n=2).,Zn

In all mammals, and most chordates 3 SOD have been detected: two copper and zinc SOD (SOD1 located in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria), and one MnSOD (SOD3 extracellular).

In plants, there are three SOD classes. FeSOD (homodimer and tetramer found in chlorplast), MnSOD (homodimer and homotetramer mainly found in mitochondrion and peroxisomes) and CuZnSOD (in the chloroplast and cytosol).

In prokaryote, iron or manganes SOD can be found together with Nickel-containing SOD.
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